Scientists had long been curious whether Arbidol bound to the viral proteins used to recognize host cells–or with the viral “fusion machinery” that enters and infects host cells. To answer this question, the researchers used a high-resolution imaging technique called X-ray crystallography to create 3D structures showing how Arbidol binds to two different strains of influenza virus. The structures revealed that Arbidol binds to the virus’s fusion machinery, as some had suspected. The small molecule binds to a viral protein called hemagglutinin, stopping the virus from rearranging its conformation in a way that enables the virus to fuse its membrane with a host cell. “We found that the small molecule binds to a hidden pocket in hemagglutinin,” said study first author Rameshwar U. Kadam, senior research associate at TSRI. He added that the drug acts as a sort of “glue” to hold the subunits of hemagglutinin together. “Arbidol is the first influenza treatment shown to use a hemagglutinin-binding approach,” he said. This vulnerable pocket is “conserved,” meaning it is likely important for viral function–and more difficult to mutate as the virus spreads–suggesting why Arbidol has relatively broad use in fighting many strains of the virus, including emerging strains. The new findings also help scientists understand how Arbidol compares to influenza treatments such as Tamiflu.

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“We told just about everyone,” said Martina Goodman. 19-year-old Martina Goodman has been on a kidney transplant list for a little over a year.”My dad got tested a couple months ago. We found out 2 weeks ago he could do it.” John Goodman, Martina’s father, was a positive match for a kidney, which tookher off the transplant list.”I was excited about that, [to be able to]give my daughter my own kidney,” said John Goodman. The odds have always seemed to be against Martina.”When Nice sentiments I was born I was diagnosed with Mosaic Trisomy 22, which is a chromosome disorder. Its caused a bunch of other health problems,” said Martina. The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) definesMosaicTrisomy 22 as arare chromosomal disorder wherechromosome 22 appears three timesrather than twice in some cells of the body. Characteristic features typically include growth delays, mental retardation, unequal development of the two sides of the body, and webbing of the neck. Affected individuals may also have abnormal outward deviation of the elbows upon extension, multiple pigmented moles or birthmarks, distinctive malformations of the head and facialarea, and other physical abnormalities. ta Martina has had about 15 major surgeries,including threebladder surgeries, a hernia, heart surgery, and twospine surgeries.Her right leg was lengthened and her left leg was shortened, which is a characteristic of Mosaic Trisomy 22.

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